An Old Legend

An Old Legend

The six ravens (to keep) in the Tower of London now for centuries. They used to come in from Essex for food scraps when the Tower (to use) as a palace. Over the years people (to think) that if the ravens ever left the Tower, the monarchy would fall. So Charles II (to decree) that six ravens should always (to keep) in the Tower and should (to pay) a wage from the treasury. In those times the White Tower was home to the Royal Observatory, and when the King (to tell) that the ravens got in the way of the observations, he (to move) the astronomer instead. Since then, the Observatory (to be situated) in Greenwich, and three pairs of breeding ravens (to be) a permanent feature of the Tower, cared for by the Raven Master. Sometimes they (to live) as long as 25 years, but their wings (to clip) so they can’t fly away, and when a raven (to die), another raven (to bring) from Essex.

Exercise 5. Translate the sentences paying attention to the phrasal verbs.

1. He kept on talking after everybody asked him to stop. 2. I don't think he killed those men. Somebody set him up. 3. A new parliamentary committee was set up yesterday. 4. Keep your back straight when you pick up something heavy. 5. What time are you going to pick me up? 6. It's possible to pick up enough English in three weeks before your trip to London. 7. Meg dropped in yesterday after dinner. 8. Jimmie isn't on the team any more. He dropped out. 9. My sister gets away with everything! 10. Natasha doesn't get on with her co-workers. 11. The bus was full, so it was difficult both to get on and to get off.

*Exercise 6. Insert the phrasal verbs from exercise 5.

1. … your English! 2. Though he has been told not to smoke at the office, he … smoking every half-hour. 3. I didn’t do anything wrong. They … me …! 4. A school based on absolutely new principles … 5 years ago by this outstanding educationist. 5. Let's …on Julie since we're driving by her house. 6. It's difficult to get a good job if you …of high school. 7. Could you …me … at the airport tomorrow and …at Harrods’s? 8. The train is leaving. Quick, …! 9. The gangsters … with a murder. 10. Do you … with your neighbors? 11. We’ll have to … to change for Bus No. 5.

Exercise 7. Match the modal verbs and their meanings. § 10.

permission (b)

physical or mental

ability /disability (a) probability (c)

impossibility (d) possibility in a

particular situation (e)

politeness (f)

1) He can play tennis well and speak Chinese.

2) I haven’t been able to sleep recently.

3) It’s cloudy; it may /might rain in the evening.

4) May / can I take your book?

5) Could you leave me a message, please?

6) We have just had lunch. You can’t (cannot)be hungry.

7) She wasn’t at home when I phoned but I was able to contact her at her office.

Exercise 8. Completethe sentences using “can, can’t, could, couldn’t”.

1. I’m afraid I … come to your party next week. 2. When Tim was 16, he was a fast runner. He … run 100 metres in 11 seconds. 3. “Are you in a hurry?” “No, I’ve got plenty of time. I … wait”. 4. I was feeling sick yesterday. I … eat anything. 5. Can you speak up a bit? I … hear you very well. 6. “You look tired”. “Yes, I … sleep last night”. 7. … you be so kind to tell me the time, please?

*Exercise 9. Use “can” if possible; otherwise use “be able to”. § 10.1.

1. George has traveled a lot. He … speak three languages. 2. Martin is an eccentric. I’ve never … understand him. 3. Tom might … come tomorrow. 4. Sandra … drive but she hasn’t got a car. 5. I’m very busy on Friday but I … meet you on Saturday morning. 6. Ask Catherine about your problem. She might … help you. 7. I would like to … swim well. 8. She used to … dance very well but she … not do it now.

*Exercise 10. Paraphrase using “couldn’t” (in the negative sentence) or “was / were able to” (in the affirmative sentence). § 10.1.


1. Everybody managed to escape from the fire. 2. Jack and Paul played tennis yesterday; Jack played very well but in the end Paul managed to beat him. 3. I looked everywhere for the book but I didn’t manage to find it. 4. Tom managed to finish his work that afternoon. 5. I had forgotten to bring my camera so I didn’t manage to take any pictures. 6. They didn’t want to come with us and nobody managed to persuade (убеждать) them. 7. Ann had given us good directions, so we managed to get there in time.

Exercise 11. Paraphrase using “may or might” according to the structures. § 10.2.

He may / might be in his office. Present
He may / might be doing the task. Continuous
He may / might have (not) done it. Past

1. Perhaps Margaret is busy.

2. Perhaps she didn’t know about it.

3. Perhaps she is working now.

4. Perhaps she wants to be alone.

5. Perhaps she was ill yesterday.

6. Perhaps she went home early.

7. Perhaps she is having lunch.

8. Perhaps she didn’t see you.

9. Perhaps she didn’t leave you a message.

Exercise 12. Match the modal verbs and their meanings. § 10.3.

logical necessity (b)

moral or social

obligation /duty (a) personal obligation (c)

advice or expectation or plan (e)

opinion (d)

absence of necessity (f) probability (g)

1) You must work hard in order to pass the exam successfully.

2) Peter is tall and strong, he must be a good sportsman.

3) In Britain schoolchildren have towear uniform.

4) The delegation is to arrive on Monday.

5) You should eat more fruit and vegetables.

6) We needn’t hurry. We’ve got plenty of time.

7) I ought to pay our debts.

*Exercise 13. Put in “must or cannot”. § 10.

1. You’ve been travelling all day. You … be tired. 2. That restaurant … be very good. It’s always full of people. 3. That restaurant … be very good. It’s always empty. 4. It rained every day during their holiday, so they … have had a very nice time. 5. You got here very quickly. You … have walked very fast. 6. Congratulations on passing your exam. You … be very pleased. 7. Jim is a hard worker. – You … be joking. He is very lazy.

*Exercise 14. Put in “must or have to”. § 10.3, 10.4.

1. She is a really nice person. You … meet her. 2. You … turn left here because of the traffic system. 3. My eyesight isn’t very good. I … wear glasses for reading. 4. I haven’t phoned Ann for ages. I … phone her tonight. 5. Last night Nick became ill suddenly. We … call a doctor. 6. When you come to London again, you … come and see us. 7. I’m sorry I couldn’t come yesterday. I … work late. 8. Caroline may … go away next week. 9. I … get up early tomorrow. There are a lot of things I want to do.

Exercise 15. Write a sentence with “should or shouldn’t” + one of the following: go to bed so late; look for another job; put some pictures on he walls; take a photograph; use her car so much. § 10.7.

1. My salary is very low. – You … .

2. Jack always has difficulty getting up. He … .

3. What a beautiful view! You … .

4. Sue drives everywhere. She never walks. She … .

5. Bill’s room isn’t very interesting. He … .

Exercise 16. Paraphrase using “be to”. § 10.5.

Model 1: I expect her to come and help. → She is to come and help.

Model 2: It was planned that we should wait for them at the door. → We were to wait for them at the door.

1. The lecture is supposed to begin at 12 o’clock. 2. It was arranged that he should meet her at the station. 3. The tourists expected the guide to show them around the Tower of London. 4. It is planned that she will wait for them at the entrance. 5. The train is supposed to arrive on time. 6. I expected you to leave me a message. 7. It was arranged that all the students would take part in the conference.

**Exercise 17. Complete the sentences using “could, must, was to, had to, might, shouldn’t, will be able to, needn’t, ought to”. §10.

1. Ted isn’t at work today, he … be ill. 2. My grandfather was a very clever man. He … speak five languages. 3. You look tired. You … work so hard. 4. It was raining hard and we … wait until it stopped. 5. You … buy the tickets now, you can book them in advance. 6. As they had agreed before, Tom … wait for his girlfriend at the entrance. 7. Children … take care of their parents. 8. I hope he … speak English well next year. 9. Where are you going for your holidays? – I haven’t decided yet. I … go to London.

*Exercise 18. Define the functions of the numbered forms of the Infinitive used in the text and mark them in the table. Entitle the text. § 11.1.

In 1050 King Edward the Confessor, a very religious man, started to build (1) a great church, called Westminster Abbey. To keep (2) a close eye on its construction, Edward also built a new home between the abbey and the river – the Palace of Westminster. It took fifteen years to erect (3) the abbey, but its creator couldn’t be happy to have finished (4) it because soon after the consecration (освящение) he died and was buried there.

In the 1200s King Henry III decided to pull down (5) Edward’s abbey and began building the more beautiful one after the Gothic style then prevailing in France – the church we see today. To visit (6) Westminster Abbey is worthwhile if you are interested in British history. It is the chief church of England, and since 1308 every king or queen has been crowned there, except for two: Edward V who was murdered in the Tower of London in 1483, and Edward VII who abdicated in 1936.

According to a tradition, the Coronation Chair, carved from oak, is to be used (7) for the ceremony of crowning every monarch. Besides, Westminster Abbey has burial places of many monarchs and great men; Geoffrey Chaucer was the first poet to be buried (8) there in 1400. Isaac Newton's monument is one of the most interesting in Westminster Abbey, it is known to have been executed (9) in 1731 by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack in white and grey marble.

The abbey has also been the place of royal weddings. In 1947 Princess Elizabeth (the future Queen) was married there to the Duke of Edinburgh; the marriage took place in the early post-war years, and Elizabeth still required ration coupons (талоны) to buy (10) the material for her gown. The last wedding in April 2011, when Prince William, Elizabeth’s grandson, was married to Miss Catherine Middleton, was probably the grandest wedding to be performed (11) in Westminster Abbey and to be televised (12) all over the world.

Forms Functions Indefinite Active Perfect Active Indefinite Passive Perfect Passive
Part of the predicate

Exercise 19. Complete the sentences using Active Infinitive or Passive Infinitive. § 11.1.

1. Marie Tussaud managed (to create /to be created) her first wax figure, of Voltaire, in 1777, when she was 16. 2. This guide book is worth (to buy /to be bought) if you want to visit all the places of interest. 3. The children were delighted (to have brought /to have been brought) to the circus. 4. Sorry not (to have noticed /to have been noticed) you. 5. I am glad (to have invited / to have been invited) to stay with them in their country-house. 6. Diplomacy is the art (to say /to be said) the nastiest things in the nicest way. 7. Jane ought (to have taught /to have been taught) two foreign languages. Why wasn’t she, I wonder? 8. Nature has many secrets (to discover /to be discovered) yet.

*Exercise 20. Paraphrase using the appropriate form of the Infinitive.

§ 11.1.

Model: He is sorry that he has saidit. → He is sorry to have saidit.

1. Ann is glad that she has done all the work yesterday. 2. I am pleased that I am speaking with you. 3. We should be happy if we could join you. 4. They were sorry that they had missed one-day excursion to London. 5. I hope that I will know everything by tomorrow. 6. My sister will be delighted when she is wearing a dress as lovely as that. 7. He was proud that he had passed the exam successfully. 8. Don’t promise that you will do it, if you are not sure that you can. 9. The tourists were glad, that they were shown around and told a lot of interesting facts about St. Paul’s Cathedral. 10. It is certain that it will rain if you don’t take your umbrella. 11. He expected that he would be listened to attentively.


*Read the following text and do the tasks given below.

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