Упражнения

Упражнения


1. Найдите в тексте 1А эквиваленты последующих слов и выражений: количество энергии; обработка продовольствия; точка плавления; температура замерзания; датчик; сопротивление; спираль провода, намотанного вокруг глиняной бобины; блок входа; преобразовывать; испускать энергию; частота; длина волны; электрическое поле; возрастать линейно; напряжение; электрические схемы; точность; время срабатывания; инфракрасный диапазон; параметр.

2. Дайте синонимы приведенных слов:

to convert; to set up; to insure; available; to include; to фокус; to create; to package; stable; to react; to analyze.

3. Придумайте вопросы к данным ответам:

1. The most important measurement in food processing is temperature.

2. Any food product must be heated to insure that any microorganisms are destroyed.

3. It is based upon several basic temperature points.

4. It is consists of a coil of wire wound around a small ceramic bobbin.

5. It creates a very low electro-magnetic field.

6. This effect was discovered by Thomas Seebeck.



7. Thermocouples are the most robust temperature sensor.

8. Infared thermometry analyzes the energy that a body is emitting.

9. Radiation pyrometers are expensive and very difficult to set up.

10. We should take into account temperature range, accuracy, reaction time and cost. .

Переведите на британский язык:

1. Температура - измерение количества энергии, которую тело проектирует.

2. Интернациональная шкала температур основывается на температурных точках плавления и замерзания.

3. Термопара - соединение 2-ух неоднородных металлов.

4. Электрическое поле возрастает линейно относительно абсолютной температуры.

5. Электрическое поле провоцирует очень маленький поток в цепи.

6. Напряжение читается спец блоком входа термопары и преобразовывается.

7. Электронное сопротивление проводящего материала возрастает пропорционально температуре материала.

8. Элементы температурных сопротивлений устойчивы, точны и чувствительнее, чем термопары, но обхватывают наименьший интервал температур и реагируют на конфигурации в температуре медлительнее.

9. Инфракрасная термометрия - анализ энергии, которую тело испускает в инфракрасном диапазоне.

10.При выборе электрического температурного прибора измерения должно учитываться: интервал температур, точность, время срабатывания и цена. .

5. Составьте предложения со словами, данными перед текстом 1А.

6. Разделите текст 1А на части и выразите основную идея каждой одним предложением.

7. Перескажите текст 1А. Раскройте достоинства и недочеты разных температурных датчиков.

Unit 2

Выучите слова и выражения:

churn - маслобойка (churning - сбивание масла)

butter grain - масляное зерно to discharge - сливать, спускать

continuous butter making - поточный метод производства сливочного масла

liquid milk - жидкое, питьевое молоко

dairy - молочный завод

creamery - маслозавод

to pasteurize - пастеризовать (pasteurizing plant - установка для пастеризации)

re-infection - повторное инфецирование aeration - аэрация foaming - вспенивание

skimmilk - молочный сепаратор,

to pump- перекачивать

culture - закваска (cultured butter - кисло-сливочное масло) antioxygenic - антиоксидант

oxidation - окисление

de-aeration - деаэрация

flesh cooler - охладитель затопленного типа

volatile substances - летучие вещества

ripening tank - емкость для сквашивания

plate heat exchanger - пластинчатый теплообменник

drainage - сток (воды)

Text 2A. Buttermaking.

Butter was originally мейд on the farm for household use. Then a manually operated butter chum was used. Following churning and discharge of buttermilk, the butter grains were collected in a shallow and manually worked until acceptable dryness and structure were achieved.

Large-scale butter manufacturing processes generally involve quite a number of stages. Churns are still used, but are rapidly being replaced by continuous buttermaking machines.


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The cream can be supplied by a liquid milk dairy or separated from whole

milk at the creamery. In the former case, the cream should have been pasteurized by supplier storage and delivery to the creamery should be undertaken in such a way that re-infection, aeration or foaming does not take place. After reception procedures, weighing and analysis, the cream is stored in tanks.

If the cream is produced at the creamery the whole milk is preheated to 63 С in the pasteurizer before being separated. The warm cream is routed into an intermediate storage tank before being pumped to the cream pasteurization plant.

The skimmilk from the separator is pasteurized and cooled before being pumped to storage. When cultured butter is to be produced, part of the skimmilk should be utilized for starter preparation.

From the intermediate storage tanks the cream continuous to pasteurization at a temperature of 95 С or higher. The high temperature is needed to destroy enzymes and microorganisms that would impair the keeping quality of the butter.

The destruction of unwanted microorganisms is also beneficial in the case of sour cream butter, as this creates perfect growth conditions for the bacteria culture. The heat treatment releases strongly antioxygenic sulphhydry compounds, which further reduce the risk of oxidation.

Vacuum de-aeration can also be included in the line if the cream has an undesirable flavor or aroma, e.g. onion taste. Vacuum treatment before pasteurization involves preheating the cream the cream to the required temperature and then subjecting it to flash cooling to free any gas and volatile substances. After this the cream is returned to the pasteuriser for further treatment-heating, holding and cooling before proceeding to the ripening tank.

In the ripening tank, of a recommended maximum volume of 30 000 /, the cream is subjected to a temperature program which will give the fat the required crystalline structure when it solidifies during cooling. Ripening usually takes 12-15 hours. Where possible, the acid-producing bacteria culture is added before the temperature treatment program selected.

From the ripening tank the cream is pumped to the continuous buttermaker or the churn; sometimes a passage through a plate heat exchanger is desirable to bring it to the required temperature. In the churning process the cream is agitated to break down the fat globules.

The cream is split into two fractions: butter grains and buttermilk. In traditional churning the machine is stopped when the grains have reached a certain size, and then the buttermilk is drained off. Buttermilk drainage is continuous in continuous buttermaking machines.

After drainage the butter is worked to a continuous fat phase containing

finally dispersed water phase. If the butter is to be salted, salt is spread over the surface in batch production, or added in slurry form during the working stage in continuous buttermaking.

After salting, butter must be worked further to ensure uniform distribution of the salt. The working of the butter also affects the characteristics by which the product is judged-aroma, taste, keeping quality, appearance and colour. The finished butter is discharged into the packaging unit and thence to color storage.

Упражнения

1. Поставьте в правильном порядке главные этапы производства
масла.

1. Cream pasteurization

2. Vacuum deaeration

3. Milk reception

4. Buttermilk collection

5. Preheating and pasteurization of skimmilk

6. Fat separation

7. Culture preparation

8. Cream ripening

9. Temperature treatment 10.Packaging machines

2. Найдите в тексте 2А эквиваленты последующих слов и выражений:

несатурированный, пластинчатый теплообменник, жировой шарик, суспензия (взвесь), пахта, вспениваться, повторное инфецирование, маслобойка, питьевое молоко, пастеризатор, поточный метод производства масла, охладитель затопленного типа, сток, диспергировать.

3. Найдите в правой колонке эквиваленты британских слов.

to subject затвердевать

to free ввязывать

to modify портить

to involve перекачивать

to pump освобождать

to impair снимать сливки

to release снижать

to reduce размешивать

to agitate сливать

to drain off изменять

to cream off подвергать

to solidify выпускать

4. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1. What are the main process steps in continuous production of cultured butter?

2. When is vacuum deaeration recommended?

3. What effect does vacuum treatment have?

4. What would impair the keeping quality of the butter?

5. What fractions is the cream split into?

5. Переведите предложения с британского на российский:

1. Cream contains antibiotics or disinfectants s unsuitable for cultured butter manufacture.

2. Vacuum deaderation is recommended when the cream has a very strong flavor or aroma defect, for example onion taste.

3. Butter is usually divided into two main categories: sweet cream butter and cultured or sour cream butter мейд from bacteriologicaly soured cream.

4. Butter can be produced in churns in a batch process or in a continious process with modern butter making mashines.

5. Vacuum treatment may have an unfavorable effect on the yield and the butter consistency.

6. Heat treatment should be strong enough to result in a negative peroxidase test, but hot so intense as to cause such as cooked flavour.

7. Quick cooling of the cream to a low temperature speeds up the crystallisation process.

8. These is a clear trend towards reduced fat and low-fat products.

6. Перескажите текст 2А.

7. Прочитайте текст 2В.

Text2B.

A Continious Buttermaking Machine

Methods of continious buttermaking were introduced at the end of 19-th century, but their application was very restricted. Work was resumed in 1940-s and resulted in three different processes, all based on the traditional methods: churning, centrifugation and concentration or emulsifying. One of the processes, based on conventional churning, now predominates. In machines based on traditional methods the butter is basically the same, except that water dispersion.

The cream is prepared in the same way as for conventional churning before being continiously fed from the ripening tanks to the buttermaker. A continious buttermaking machine consists of churning cylinder, separation section, squeeze-drying working section, final working stage and moisture control unit.

The cream is first fed into a double-cooled churning cylinder fitted with beaters that are driven by a variable-speed motor.

Rapid conversion takes place in the cylinder-and, when finished, the butter grains and buttermilk pass on to a separation section, also called the first working section, where the butter is separated from the buttermilk. The first washing of the butter grains takes place en route with recirculated chilled buttermilk. The separation section in equipped with a screw that initiates the working of the butter while conveying is to the next stage.

As it leaves the separation section the butter passes through a conical channel and a perforated plate, the squeeze-drying section, where any remaining buttermilk is removed. The butter grains the proceed to the second working section. Reach working section has its own motor, so that they can operate at different speeds for optimum results. Normally the first screw rotates at twice the speed of the screw in the second section. Following the last working stage, salt may be added by a high-pressure injector in the injection chamber.

The next section, the vaccuum working section, is connected to a vaccuum pump. In this section it is possible to reduce the air content of the butter to the same level as for conventionally churned butter. The final working stage in мейд up of four small sections, each of which is separated from the adjacent one by a perforated plate. Perforations of different sizes and working impellers of different shapes are used to optimise treatment of the butter. In the first of these small sections there is also an injector for final adjustment of the moisture content. Once regulated, the moisture content of the butter deviates less than ~ 0Д %, provided the characteristics of the cream remain the same.

Transmitters for moisture content, salt content, density and temperature can be fitted in the outlet from the machine. The signals from the instruments. The finished butter is discharged from the end nozzle as a continious ribbon into the butter silo for further transport to the packing machines.

Continious buttermaking machines are available for production capacities of 200-5000 kg/h butter from sour cream and 200-10000 kg/h butter from sweet cream.

8. Выучите слова и выражения: buttermaking - маслопроизводство beater - мешалка, маслобойка seporation - сепарирование

to squeeze - сжимать, отжимать

injection - инжекция, впрыскивание

conversion - переработка

to chill - охлаждать

recirculation - рециркуляция

screw - шнек

perforated plate - перфорированная плита

impeller - гонок рассева

discharge nozzle - выходное сопло, патрубок

9. Выразите основную идея текста 2В

а) пятью предложениями;

б) 3-мя предложениями;

в) одним предложением.

Unit3

Выучить слова и выражения :

beverage – напиток

perishable – скоропортящиеся

conveyor - транспорт

packer - упаковочная машина

wrapper - оберточная машина

crate - решетчатая тара

warehouse -склад

handling - разгрузочно-погрузочные работы

foil - фольга

homogeniser- гомогенизатор

disruption -разрушение

fat globule - жировой шарик

plate heat exchanger - пластинчатый теплообменник

tubular heat exchanger - трубчатый теплообменник

scraped surface heat exchanger - скребковый теплообменник

corrugated - гофрированный , рифленый

gasket seal - уплотнительная прокладка

rigid - жесткий , недвижный

inlet - входное отверстие

outlet - выпускное отверстие , сток

scraping blade - скребок

dairy separator - молочный сепаратор

centrifugal separator - центрифуга, центробежный сепаратор

Text ЗА

Why Tetra Рак.

For most people, Tetra Рак is synonymous with carton packages for milk, juice and beverages. But they offer the widest possible range of packaging alternatives from carton to plastic bottles.

Aseptic technology is Tetra Pak's most outstanding innovation. It keeps even the most perishable liquid foods fresh, tasty and nutrition's for months, without refrigeration or added preservatives. They invented the technology in the 1960's and have continued to develop it ever since.

Development is an investment for the future. Tetra Рак success formula is based on unique products - but no matter how unique when introduced, all products will eventually become old. A large number of different type's of distribution equipment, such a conveyors, tray packers, film wrappers, crates and roll containers are produced and marketed. Tetra Рак has plants worldwide for the manufacture of carton based packaging material. This material is delivered in rolls for efficient and economical handling in the warehouse and during transport. The packaging material for carton based packages is composed of a laminate of paper, polyethylene and, for aseptic packages, aluminum foil. This combination of material varies to suit each separate product category but in each case the only material to touch the contents of the package is food grade polyethylene.

Most food processes are built up with universally applicable processing components. Tetra Рак has unique known- how of both designing and manufacturing the main items, such as separators, homogenizes, heat exchanges.

Homogenization primarily causes disruption of particles in an emulsion or suspension. An example is in milk processing where the fat globules are disrupted into smaller ones.

Tetra Alex homogenizes and high pressure pumps are designed for food applications. In principle, Tetra Alex can handle any low or fluent high viscous product.

Tetra Рак development work on the Tetra Alex machines has focused on
providing high profitability and first-class product quality for uses. The
machines are continuously developed, not only to reduce maintenance costs and
energy consumption, but also to improve working environment-related aspects
such as safe design, noise level and access for service and daily

maintenance.

Heating and cooling are basic processes, forming vital parts of the production process of dairy products, beverages and other liquid foods. In most cases, heating and cooling take place in a plate or tubular heat exchanger.

Tetra Plex in the world leading brend of plate heat exchangers and Tetra Spiraflo in the world leading brand of tubular heat exchangers. A scraped-surface heat exchanger is mainly used for sticky, viscous and particulated product. All three types of heat exchangers can be combined in the same application.

Plate heat exchangers consist of several stainless steel corrugated plates with rubber gasket seals. The plates are pressed together into a plate package and assembled between two rigid plates.

Tetra Рак has provided the liquid food industry with Tetra Spiraflo, a tubular heat exchanger. The most optimal performance was achieved by combining straight and corrugated tubes.

Scraped-surface heat exchanger is suited for hygienic heating and cooling of viscous sticky and particulate food products. It can operate with a wide range of media products. The product is pumped into the lower end of the vertical heat exchanger and the product flows through the cylinder wall by the scraping blades.

Dairy separators from Tetra Рак ensure high capacity and efficient skimming performance. Smooth product treatment results in better skimming efficiency and less power consumption. Tetra Рак separators maintain the quality of your products by preventing entry of destructive air. Centrifugal separation in Tetra Рак has a proven design. Its hermetic design gives high capacity and high performance. Wide range of capacities gives a wide spectrum of applications. It has gentle treatment during the entire separation process.

Tetra Рак supplies complete processing and packaging lines, and takes total responsibility for the equipment supplied.

Упражнения.

1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты последующих слов и выражений:

стремительно портящиеся продукты, асептическая упаковка, помощь в обслуживании, процесс производства продуктов из молока, трубчатый теплообменник, пластинчатый теплообменник, скребковый теплообменник, рифленые пластинки из нержавеющей стали, недвижные пластинки, прокладка, скребок, потребление энергии, обработка, поставляемое оборудование, нести ответственность за эффективность, обработка товаров однородных по смеси, сохранять свежайшим.

2. Дайте синонимы приведенных слов.

to access, to operate, to agitate, to offer, to develop, to produce, design, maintenance, application, unique.

3. Переведите предложения на российский язык.

1. A package should save more than it costs.

2. Present aseptic cartons are 20 per cent lighter today than they were 20 years ago.

3. Any package should meet the requirements of all four waste
management options: source reduction, recycling, energy-from-waste-
incineration and landfills.

4. Development is an investment for the future.

5. Aseptic technology is very competitive to frozen and chilled
alternatives.

6. High-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization is applied on liquid milk for consumption.

7. The main purpose of pasteurization is to inactivate pathogenic bacteria.

8. Thousand of decisions have to be taken daily to achieve a perfect result.

9. Minimize waste of resources and you will minimize cost.

10. Packaging has a very important function, which is for protect food
safely and efficiently from where they were мейд to where they will be
consumed.

4. Переведите на британский язык.

1. Главные цели упаковки товаров - сохранить качество продукта.

2. Отменная упаковка может посодействовать сохранить продукт и прирастить его срок годности во время хранения и перевозки.

3. Упаковка несет важную информацию о продукте, его составе,
энергетической ценности, сроках годности.

4. Асептическая картонная упаковка делается из 3-х главных
материалов бумаги, целофана и алюминия.

5. Компания Terra Pak производит уникальные механизмы: сепараторы, гомогенизаторы и теплообменники.

6. Пластинчатый, трубчатый и скребковый теплообменники могут быть скомбинированы и даже объединены.

7. Центробежный сепаратор герметичен, что дает высочайшее качество выполнения операции.

9. Процесс пастеризации молока включает термическую обработку, сепарирование и гомогенизацию.

10. Нагревание и остывание - главные процессы, применяемые в производстве продуктов из молока.

11. Тарельчатый теплообменник состоит из нескольких рифленых пластинок из нержавеющей стали.

5. Составьте предложения со последующими словами:

plate heat exchanger, gasket seal, homogenizer, tubular heat exchanger, corrugated, perishable, scraping blade.

7. Разделите текст ЗА на смысловые части и выразите основную идея каждой одним предложением.

7. Перескажите текст ЗА.

Unit 4.

Выучите слова и выражения:

whole milk - цельное молоко

skim milk - сепарированное молоко

standardised milk - нормализованное молоко

market milk - питьевое молоко, поступающее в продажу

flow transmitter - расходомер

density transmitter - индикатор плотности

regulating valve - распределительный клапан

surplus - избыток

buster pump - бустерный насос

capacity - пропускная способность

Text 4A.

Pasteurised milk products.

Pasteurised milk products are liquid products мейд from milk and cream intended to be' used directly by consumers. This group of products includes whole milk, skimmilk, standardised milk, and various types of cream.

Depending on legislation and regulations, the design of process lines for pasteurised market milk varies a great deal from country to country and even from dairy to dairy. For instance, fat standardisation (if applied) may be pre-standardisation, post-standardisation or direct standardisation. Homogenization may be total or partial, etc.

The "simplest" process is just to pasteurise the whole milk. Here the process line consists of a pasteuriser, a buffer tank and a filling machine. The process becomes more complicated if it has to produce several .types of market milk products, i.e. whole milk, skimmilk and standardised milk of various fat contents as well as cream of various fat contents.

The fat content of the cream from the separator is set to the required level and is than maintained at that level, regardless of moderate variations in the fat content and in the flow rate of the incoming milk. The fat content of the cream is usually set at 35 to 40% for whipping cream, but can be set at other levels, e.g. for production of butter or other types of cream. Once set, the fat content of the cream is kept constant by the control system, consisting of flow transmitter, density transmitter, regulating valves and the control system for the standardisation system.

In this example partial homogenisation is used, i.e. only the cream is treated. The reason for choosing this system is that it can manage with a smaller homogeniser and thus consume less power while still maintaining a good homogenisation effect.

After passage of the standardisation device the flow of cream is divided into two streams. One, with the adequate hourly volume to give the market milk the required final fat content, is routed to the homogeniser and the other, the surplus cream, is passed to the cream treatment plant. The capacity of the homogeniser is carefully calculated and fixed at a certain flow rate.

In a partial homogenisation arrangement the homogeniser is also connected with the skimmilk line so that it always has enough product for proper operation. In that way, the relatively low flow of cream is compensated with skimmilk up to the rated capacity. The milk, now with standardised fat content, is pumped to the heating section of the milk heat exchanger where it is pasteurised. The necessary holding time is provided by a separate holding tube. The pasteurisation temperature is recorded continuously.

Pump is a booster pump which increases the pressure of the product to a level at which the pasteurised product cannot be contaminated by untreated milk or by the cooling medium if a leak should occur in the plate heat exchanger.

If the pasteurisation temperature should drop, this is sensed by a temperature transmitter. A signal activates flow diversion valve and the milk flows back to the balance tank..

After pasteurisation the milk continues to a cooling section in the heat exchanger, where it is regeneratively cooled by the incoming untreated milk, and then to the cooling section where it is cooled with ice water. The cold milk is then pumped to the filling machines.

Упражнения.

1. Найдите в тексте 4А эквиваленты последующих слов и выражений: технологический процесс, разливочная машина, содержание жира, резервуар, установить что-либо подходящего уровня, сохранять неизменным, потреблять меньше энергии, устройство, остаток (избыток), наращивать давление, утечка, температурный датчик, необработанное молоко, расходомер, индикатор плотности, распределительный клапан.

2. Найдите в правой колонке эквиваленты британских слов, to pump устанавливать

to increase нагревать

to occur обеспечивать

to require перекачивать

to heat поддерживать

to provide загрязнять, портить

to contaminate потреблять

to consume охлаждать

to set наращивать

to maintain случаться, происходить

3. Придумайте вопросы к данным ответам.

1. The purpose of standardisation is to give the milk a defined, guarantied content.

2. They are liquid products мейд from milk, used directly by consumers.

3. A correct cooling, pasteurisation is one of the important processes in the treatment of milk.

4. The pasteurisation process may vary from one country to another
according to national legislation.

5. A common requirement in all countries is that the heat treatment must guarantee the destruction of unwanted microorganisms without the product being damaged.

6. The purpose of homogenisation is to disintegrate the fat globules in the milk in order to reduce creaming.

7. Homogenisation may be total or partial.

8. Partial homogenisation is more economical, because a smaller
homogeniser can be used.

4. Переведите на британский язык.

1. Температура и время пастеризации - очень принципиальные причины, которые должны быть определены точно в согласовании с качеством поступающего молока и требованиями по сроку годности.

2. Молоко поступает в резервуар и перекачивается в тарельчатый теплообменник, где за ранее разогревается.

3. Из тарельчатого теплообменника нагретое молоко попадает в сепаратор, где получаются сливки.

4. Содержание жира в сливках устанавливается на требуемом уровне.

5. Уровень жира поддерживается неизменным контролирующей системой.

6. Эта система потребляет меньше энергии.

7. Пропускная способность гомогенизатора кропотливо фиксируется на определенном уровне.

8. Бустерный насос наращивает давление до уровня, при котором пастеризованный продукт не может быть испорчен не обработанным молоком, если случается утечка в тарельчатом теплообменнике.

9. Температурный датчик говорит, если температура падает.
10. После пастеризации молоко попадает в охлаждающий отсек

теплообменника, где охлаждается поступающим не обработанным молоком.

5. Составьте предложения со словами, данными перед текстом.

6. Разделите текст на смысловые части, озаглавьте каждую из их.

7. Перескажите текст 4А.

8. Прочитайте текст 4В.

Text 4B.

Shelf Life of Pasteurised Milk.

The shelf life of pasteurised milk is basically and always dependent on the quality of the raw milk. Naturally it is also important that production conditions are technically and hygienically optimised, and that the plant is properly managed.

When produced from raw milk of high quality and under good technical and hygienic conditions, ordinary pasteurised milk should have a shelf life of 8-10 days at 5-7" С in an unopened package.

The shelf life can however be drastically shortened if the raw milk is contaminated with microorganisms.

To improve bacteriological status of pasteurised milk and thereby safeguard or even prolong its shelf life, the pasteurisation plant can be supplemented with bactofugation or microfiltration plant.

The bactofugation process is based on sentrifugal separation of microorganisms.

Good effect on bacteria and spores can be achieved with microfilter membranes of pore size. In addition to microfilter module the plant contains a high temperature treatment unit for the mixture of the cream phase and bacteria concentrate. Then the product is sterilised at about 130" С for a couple of seconds, homogenised and finally paseurised at 72" С for 15 - 20 seconds. Then it is cooled to +4"C.

Some plants can handle up to 10 000 liters of raw milk per hour. After separation, the skimmilk is routed to microfilter module. Part of the cream, typically 40 % fat content, is remixed with the skimmilk to produce fat-standardised pasteurised market milk while the surplus cream is separately processed. The proportions of remixed and surplus cream depend on the specified fat content of the market milk.

Milk treated in this way will keep its fresh flavour and white colour. Moreover, if strictly hygienic conditions are maintained in the plant, from reception of the raw milk up to and including the packaging and filing system, the foundation of a long shelf life is laid. If the milk is kept at a temperature not more than + 7" С during the whole chain from the dairy to consumer, it is possible to attain a shelf life of up to 40 - 45 days in an unopened package.

9. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту 4В.

1 What does the shelf life of pasteurised milk basically depend on?

2. What does the process of bactofugation improve?

3. What does the bactonidation process based on?

4. What effect can be achieved with microfilter membranes?

5. What temperature should be the milk kept at?

10. Выразите основную идея текста 3-мя предложениями.

Unit 5.

Выучите слова и выражения

Silo -бункер

Whey powder - сухая сыворотка

Bulk - сыпучий

Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) - обезвоженный молочный жир

Oxidation - окисление

Batch -порция

Ageing -выдерживание, созревание

Ageing tank - чан для созревания

Mixing tank - смеситель

Compressed air - сжатый воздух

Condensed milk - сгущенка

То whip - взбивать

Ammonia jacket - охлаждающая рубаха из аммония

Mutator - мутатор

Extrusion - экструдирование

Moulding - формование

Ripple - волнистый

Feeder unit - подающий механизм

То lid - запечатывать

Rotary filling machine - ротационная машина для заполнения

Text 5




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